The Proryv Project implemented by the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM is aimed at achieving a new quality of nuclear energy, development, creation and industrial implementation of closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) based on fast reactors that will lead to development of a large-scale nuclear power industry.
The purpose of activities under the Proryv Project is the creation of nuclear-energy complexes that include NPP, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and fuel re-fabrication plant, preparation of all types of radioactive waste to the final disposal into geological formations for development of large-scale nuclear power that meets the basic requirements:
1. Exclusion of severe NPP accidents that require evacuation, or even more, resettlement of the population.
2. Ensuring the competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison with alternative generation, primarily with steam and gas installations, but also solar and wind plants, taking into account all fuel cycle costs (based on the comparative analysis of LCOE).
3. Closure of the nuclear fuel cycle for full use of energy potential of the uranium ore materials.
4. Step-by-step approach to radiation-equivalent disposal of the radwaste (with regard to the original mineral raw materials).
5. Technological strengthening of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (consistent refusal from uranium enrichment for the nuclear power industry, producing weapons-grade plutonium in blanket and allocation in the processing of spent fuel, reducing transportation of nuclear materials).
The Pilot-demonstration energy complex (PDEC)
The Pilot-demonstration energy complex (PDEC), which includes BREST-OD-300 lead cooled reactor and an on-site closed nuclear fuel cycle facility, is being built at the in JSC “Siberian Chemical Combine” site in Seversk. The facility consists of a plant for reprocessing spent mixed nitride uranium-plutonium fuel and a fabrication/refabrication plant . The fabrication/refabrication plant manufactures initial startup fuel assemblies from offsite materials and, eventually, nuclear fuel from reprocessed SNF products.
Pilot-demonstration energy complex is to demonstrate for the first time in the world a stable operation of a complete group of installations which provide for a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The on-site variant of the fuel cycle organization (PFCT) allows developing “short fuel cycle” technologies in the shortest time within one site.
At-the-plant fuel cycle consisting of two main modules, i.e. module of fabrication/refabrication and module of SNF reprocessing, have a joint radioactive waste (RW) management system. At the first of them, for the first time in the world, pilot production of mixed nitride fuel based on plutonium and depleted uranium is being created using the technology of carbothermic synthesis.
Module for fuel fabrication and refraction
A single module for fuel fabrication and refraction allows you to work with both raw materials and products from the processing of spent fuel from the BREST-OD-300 reactor. It also implies addition to the fuel of minor actinides for their consequent transmutation.
The most sizable results are obtained in the development of the dense mixed uranium-plutonium fuel.
Experimental fuel assemblies manufactured at JSC “SCC”, have proven their effectiveness in the course of reactor tests and the results of post-reactor studies.
To prove the operability of the fuel assemblies for BREST-OD-300 and BN-1200 reactors, the setting of 18 fuel assemblies (more than 1000 fuel rods) in BN-600 is completed.
During the test there was not a single case of the shell dehermitisation with the maximal burning of upto 7,5%, which is more than the burning achieved at thermal reactors. Post-reactor studies of 6 experimental fuel assemblies (KETVS and ETVS) with mixed nitride and oxide uranium-plutonium fuel showed that no structural defects were detected and the fuel rods retained their integrity.
The irradiation of the ETVS-11 in the BN-600 RU during 7 microcamps provided a justification for the performance of the fuel rods of the BREST-OD-300 initial load.
The gained results give the foundation for the further work to prove the use of the mixed nitride fuel for the development of BREST-OD-300 reactor.
At the moment, the main technological equipment is being installed on the fuel fabrication-refabrication module of the Experimental Demonstration Power Complex.
The key element of the PDEK is the first in the world innovational demonstration reactor with lead coolant which completely employs principles of principles of “natural safety “.
The features of the reactor made it possible to abandon large volumes of containment, melt traps, a large volume of support systems, and also to reduce the safety class of out-of-reactor equipment.
The integral design of the reactor facility makes it possible to localize coolant leaks in the volume of the reactor casing and to eliminate core drainage. This excludes accidents requiring evacuation of the population.
In accordance with the roadmap of the PDEK creation, the results of the R&D, confirming the characteristics of the main equipment, core components, construction materials, lead coolant technology of the BREST-OD-300 reactor are obtained and the calculation codes are verified.
Technical designs of the BREST reactor equipment are experimentally confirmed with models of its components.
The General State Expertise has issued a positive assessment of the design documentation of the power unit with BREST-OD- 300.
The second versions of the following documents were elaborated and approved by all concerned bodies. They are The Federal Norms and Rules “Requirements for the design and safe operation of the shell of the reactor equipment unit and piping of a nuclear plant with lead coolant.” (НП-117), “Requirements for the substantiation of the strength of the shell of the reactor equipment and piping of nuclear installations with lead coolant.” (НП-118) and the second versions of the State corporation «Rosatom» standards «Ensuring the integrity of the reactor unit, equipment and piping of a nuclear plant with lead coolant» (16 standards) in support of НП-117 and НП-118.
At SNF Reprocessing module of PDEC it is supposed to gradually implement the combined technology for processing MNUP SNF consisting of head operations, pyrochemical operations, hydrometallurgical refining of uranium, plutonium and neptunium (U-Pu-Np), including the separation and division of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), as well as the production of oxide powders U-Pu-Np-Am. For pyrochemical processing at the laboratory level, the technical feasibility of basic operations has been confirmed. The final variant of the technological scheme of the pyrochemical process has been chosen.
The radiation-equivalent approach at the CNFC is the main way to solve potential environmental problems when dealing with radioactive waste, as well as the main argument for working with the public and “radio phobia”. It actually means that the radiation safety of the environment is guaranteed not by technical means and methods, but by the very absence of activity above the already existing natural levels.
Today, the possibility of deep extraction of actinides (> 99.9%) from all types of radioactive waste has been experimentally demonstrated, which substantiates the technical attainability of the radiation-equivalent approach to the disposal of radioactive waste.
In the framework of the scenario of the development of the nuclear energy with thermal and fast neutron reactors in Russia in the 21st century, it has been established that:
• Alignment of the expected doses of radiation from radioactive waste and from natural raw materials (radiation equivalence) will be achieved 287 years after the generation of nuclear energy waste in 2100;
• Alignment of lifelong radiation-induced risks of possible induction of oncological diseases from radioactive waste and from natural raw materials (radiological equivalence) will be achieved 99 years after the generation of nuclear power waste in 2100
An atlas of the radioecological situation in the 30 km zone of JSC SCC, which reflects the state of the environment in the area prior to the start of operation, has been prepared. It was made in order to conduct repeated studies of environmental and natural parameters and compare them with those reflected in the atlas after years, when all the objects of the pilot-demonstration energy complex come into operation.
In 2017, several research institutes began work on its content. By taking a large number of relevant samples, virtually all natural and agricultural resources were investigated. The atlas provides detailed information on agricultural enterprises located in the 30 km zone of JSC SCC. The importance of this section is due to the fact that the food produced in these enterprises is supplied to residents of Seversk and Tomsk. The maps provide detailed information on each farm.. Also a separate section of the atlas is devoted to data on the calculation of dose loads on the population and biota, performed in accordance with the modern requirements of the IAEA and ICRP. Information on the content of radionuclides in the soil, vegetation, surface waters and bottom sediments is reflected. At the same time, in this work, the basic indicators obtained as a result of many years of measurements and observations made by environmental protection services and laboratories of the SCC were not ignored.
Industrial power complex
The closure of the nuclear fuel cycle using fast-neutron reactors makes it possible to achieve up to 100 times more efficient use of the natural resources of uranium (U) as compared to the currently prevalent TRs in the open nuclear fuel cycle.
The results of R & D allow to switch to the commercial implementation and construction of an industrial power complex (IPC) with a 1200 MW reactor installation before 2030.
To date, Russian scientists have prepared a technical proposal for a high-capacity reactor unit with a lead coolant BR-1200.
The economic effect from the commissioning of one Industrial Power Plant (IPP) as part of a 2-block NPP and a closed fuel cycle with a fast reactors compared to a typical two-block NPP with a VVER-TOI reactor:
• savings on capital investment ~ 20%.
• savings in operating (fuel + operating) costs ~ 15%.
• volume of natural gas surplus for export or domestic consumption after commissioning of one typical NPP with BR-1200 RP instead of a steam generation unit of comparable capacity during the entire service life will be ~ 200 billion m3.
The preparation of CNFC technology recons for licensing both in Russia and abroad.
A Responsibility center (RC) is a dedicated division of the enterprise that combines a group of highly skilled specialists possessing the necessary level of expertise required for completing various R&D objectives within specific «Proryv» projects.
1. RC for the «SNF core reprocessing technologies development and radioactive waste management» integrated project
The primary objective of this RC is developing core technologies and experimental facilities for successful SNF reprocessing and radioactive waste management for the reprocessing module (RM) of the pilot demonstration energy complex (PDEC). The work is integral to developing large-scale inherently safe nuclear power in Russia based on closed nuclear fuel cycle and fast reactor technologies.
2. «Development, manufacturing and commissioning of pilot production lines for on-site nuclear fuel cycle» RС
The primary objective of this RC is supervising performance and requirements compliance during the development, manufacturing and commissioning of the pilot production lines for the on-site nuclear fuel cycle facilities, including the fabrication/refabrication module (FRM) and the fast reactor SNF reprocessing module (RM).
3. «Integrating projects» RC
This RC is tasked with creating a unified structured source of information relevant to the «Proryv» project which contains optimized design cost estimate, engineering, and technical documentation for various facilities and models. Utilizing this approach allows team members to virtually retrieve a 3D representation of an object, featuring its computer model detail and depth level as well as the corresponding justification data. It also allows product life cycle simulation for object and process characteristics analysis prior to operation and preliminary technical optimization, including decommissioning and site reclamation activities.
4. RC for the «MNUP fuel element, assembly and fabrication technologies development (Dense fuel and CM)» integrated project
Located at the Bochvar National Research Institute for Inorganic Materials. The primary objective of the RC is the development of fuel elements and assemblies with MNUP fuel, as well as the corresponding technologies needed for their fabrication and the necessary fuel construction materials.
5. RC «BREST»
Located at JSC «NIKIET» and is responsible for realizing the BREST-OD-300 dedicated project. The BREST-OD-300 reactor is intended to be used for verifying the major technical solutions that will be employed in lead cooled reactors with a closed NFC and the fundamental concepts of inherent safety, on which these solutions were based on.
6. RC «BN-1200»
Located at the JSC ««Afrikantov OKBM», the primary objective of this RC is the development of materials for the next generation nuclear power unit with a BN-1200 sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor.
7. RC «New Generation Codes »
The RC was established in 2013 on the base of the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The center’s primary responsibility is the development of universal computer codes for modeling the various operating modes of existing NPPs and those in development with liquid metal cooled fast reactors and closed NFC facilities, as well as the impact of these facilities on humans and the environment.
8. RC «Project codes»
Located at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), this RC is responsible for developing project codes.
9. RC «PDEC и IEC design engineering»
The RC is responsible for design engineering the pilot demonstration energy complex (PDEC) and developing the industrial energy complex (IEC).
Content sharing and collaboration between project members is facilitated through the Shared information space (SIS).
SIS is a combination of data transmission channels, software and hardware infrastructure and the methodology that supports collaborative work between project members. It allows developing, editing and utilizing the project’s information model, as well as integration with the IT systems of dedicated projects and shared information services.
SIS consists of two major components – a secure data transfer network and the project’s information resources.